In the last few years, the rapid technological development of biomedical research has created the need for high-tech services and products which are provided by dedicated and specialized biotech companies. In this respect, Primm is a leading biotech company which exploits modern technologies both for high value R&D projects and for providing specialized services for academic, governmental and industrial laboratories.

Primm s.r.l. was founded in 1990, initially as a provider of synthetic oligonucleotides, and since has expanded its services to the areas of peptide synthesis, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, kits for DNA purification, DNA and protein sequencing, mass spectrometry and the development of recombinant proteins and immunometric assays. Today, Primm is the leading Italian company in these areas, and several qualified industrial and academic laboratories in Europe and United States have chosen Primm as their partner for selected biotechnological services. Since 1996, Primm has also invested in proprietary R&D projects based on its core technologies. At present, Primm has laboratories, manufacturing facilities and commercial offices in Italy and USA.
Its main facility is located at the San Raffaele Biomedical Science Park, Milan, providing several core services to the local scientific community and where scientific interactions are developed on a routine basis.
In 1998, the company expanded its activities through the acquisition of a top-class animal facility and laboratories located in the area of Treviso (Italy). This site is used for the production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies and to develop and perform various services, such as animal breeding and mainteinance, and pre-clinical studies.

Research and Development
Primm has grown not only as a service company, having a strong experience in industrial R&D, but it has also invested its own resources in selected projects with potential industrial outcome.
Through Primm's efforts, specific projects are brought to an appropriate level of maturation where joint ventures with larger industrial partners can be established. In the past few years, several research projects have been carried out in close collaboration with important Italian and international companies and academic institution. In particular, the main focus has been the design, synthesis and pharmaceutical development of novel bioactive peptides for various therapeutical applications. Some of these projects have led to the filing and acquisition of relevant patents and now are in pre-clinical phases.
Another relevant area of R&D activities is related to the development of recombinant strains and technologies for the industrial production of pharmaceuticals, which is also performed in collaboration with a important industrial partners.

Biotechnology Services

DNA and RNA synthesis

Oligonucelotides are synthesized at various scales of synthesis, purified, labelled and modified according to individual request. Additional services include custom labelling and modifications of synthetic oligonucleotides.

DNA sequencing
Automated DNA sequencing services provide an excellent way to obtain high quality sequences that are accepted for publication by journals and databanks alike. Primm offers full sequencing projects, single run sequencing and mutation analysis to cover all the researcher's sequencing needs.
Single run sequencing provides the researcher with the possibility to submit DNA for one primer reactions using universal or specific priers in a single run sequence which usually provides350-400 basepairs of readable sequence. Sequence based mutation detection is being used more frequently to screen for genetic mutations in disease. Characterizing genetic mutations by sequencing is best performed with a strategy based on the use of dye primer sequencing of PCR products. In full sequencing projects, Primm designs and synthesizes all primers necessary to sequence both strands utilizing the walking primer strategy.

Peptide synthesis
Primm is present in the international market as a producer of synthetic peptides. Synthetic peptides have assumed an important role in modern research activities of biochemistry, cell biology, immunology and pharmacology.
Indeed, the possibility, for example, to use immunopeptides as antigens in the production of specific antibodies for ELISA techniques or as immunological probes in gene-screening or gene expression experiments represents an extraordinary opportunity. Similarly, the use of bioactive peptides in studies of biological activity associated with specific epitopes of larger polypeptides (proteins and/or enzymes) allows the investigation of either the biochemical/structural parameters or the characterization of specific receptors or ligands. Aware of the enormous interest covered by synthetic peptides, Primm is presently offering the services on very competitive terms, both in the quality and economical aspects. The quality of the peptides produced by Primm is routinely verified by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry analysis which is considered to be one of the most reliable analytical tools in structural investigations.

Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies
Primm provides an efficient production service of polyclonal antibodies from rabbits immunized treated with synthetic peptides or antigens supplied by the customer. Primm also offers a monoclonal antibody production service, as well as the production of ascitic fluid from hybridomas, bulk quantity productions of purified monoclonal antibodies, characterizations of the biochemical and immunological characteristics of antibodies, including the kinetic parameters of antigen-antibody interactions by plasmon resonance.

Peptide and protein analysis
The structural analysis of peptides and proteins constitutes one of the most relevant topics in biotechnology, due to its importance in basic science and in the quality control of synthetic peptides and/or recombinant proteins.
Primm offers a wide range of technologically advanced services which are very important for the structural characterization and development of bio-molecules, such as peptides and proteins. These services are based on the integration of classical biochemical techniques with advanced mass spectrometry procedures, providing the following analyses:
- N-terminal protein sequencing;
- Determination of the accurate molecular weight of a peptide or a protein;
- Analysis of synthetic peptides;
- Characterization of genetic variants and mutants;
- Identification of post-translational modifications;
- Identification of labelled residues;
- Defintion of the oligosaccharide structure of glycoproteins;
- Amino acid sugar and lipid analysis.

Recombinant DNA projects
Primm is engaged in several industrial collaborations related to the development and exploitations of expression systems and production processes based on recombinant DNA technologies. Some of the activities include the cloning of new genes or already published ones (from cDNA or genomic), DNA sequencing to verify the cloned sequence, and development or recombinant strains (E. coli, yeast or mammalian cells) expressing heterologous proteins.
Protocols for fermentation, downstream processing, purification and characterization of the biological activity of the recombinant protein are also provided.